When more than 100 tigers swarmed around the village, in September 1957, the villagers in Gaoping Village, Tongdao County, Hunan, located at the foot of Xuefeng Mountain, would never dream that they had experienced the three most terrifying days and nights of their lives. .
Xie Yaozong, who experienced this horrible incident in those days, was a merchandiser who collected mountain products in Xuefeng Mountain all the year round. He recalled that not long after he walked into Gaoping Village at that time, he suddenly saw the cattle grazing outside the village fleeing wild When I came back, all the dogs in the village shivered and dared not make a sound. At this time, someone at the entrance of the village began to beat the gong desperately, calling out the villagers to rush into the village to escape.
It turned out that around the entire village, more than 100 tigers actually surrounded the village. For the next three days and three nights, no matter how the villagers lit the fire and beat the gong, the tigers just refused to leave and continued for three full days. Three nights later, the frightened villagers figured out the whole story. It turned out that someone in the village picked up a few tiger cubs on the mountain and brought them back to the village. However, after releasing a few small tigers, the besie Dispersed, and seemed to have lost their worries, and began to rush into Gaoping Village in a collective frenzy. After killing all the livestock in the village and dragging them away, they also took away three mothers and daughters from the village.
Li Huaide, an old villager of Gaoping Village, later recalled: “The tiger was eating people badly. Three mothers together, the girl who carried it to the mountain was still crying.”
Regarding this “fantastic incident” that sounds like a fantasy, but is a real event, although since the beginning of the Qing dynasty, there have been constant mentions of the “Five Years of Shunzhi (1648) Changsha Fuhu” in the chronicles and county chronicles of Hunan. Daytime cannibalism" and "Yiyang tigers walked and cannibalized in the sixth year of Shunzhi (1658)", but humans are still unbelievable. With a distance of more than 300 years, the tiger infestation in Hunan has reached such a terrifying level.
And Gaoping Village is just an amazing representative of the tiger infestation in Hunan and even in China. In fact, from 1952 to 1962, the entire Hunan Province fell into a decade-long hungry tiger disaster. Over the past ten years, more than 2,000 people have been killed in Hunan Province. On the highest peak, 32 people in Hunan Province were eaten by tigers.
If the historical data is not conclusive, this is an incredibly true event anyway. To
In the impression of contemporary people, the tiger seems to be a solitary animal according to the textbook. However, countless historical materials tell us that this is not the whole truth.
In fact, as early as 300 years before the horrific Baihuwei Village incident in Gaoping Village, Tonghua, Hunan, during the Kangxi period, Ouyang Zhi, a Sichuan native, recorded the tiger infestation in Sichuan at that time in his book "Shu Rebellion" and said: "Everywhere Tigers, or groups of ten or twenty, or seven or eight on the same road, go beyond the house on the wall, board the boat and climb the stairs on the floating water.
Regarding the situation where tigers in Sichuan province were in groups and rampant, Ouyang Zhi pointed out in the book that "this is unheard of in ancient times, and people do not believe in it." He wrote: "The rest of the journey is in the middle of the grass, under the moon. I saw the four tigers passing by; and in the southern Zhouzhou, I saw a group of tigers on the sands, like herding sheep, all large and numerous. After passing the Luzhou Zhouzhong, I saw dozens of tigers on the shore walking along the riverside, in file."
Sichuan in the early years of Kangxi, at this time, after decades of war, plague and famine in the late Ming and early Qing, the population of the entire Sichuan Province dropped from more than 6 million in the late Ming Dynasty to less than 500,000. 90% of the province’s population was lost. “The people within thousands of miles in the whole of Shu are less than the people in a county in another province.” After the massive population demise, the tigers in Sichuan began to rush into the original human territories and gnawed frantically. Eating the remaining humans in Sichuan Province, Ouyang Zhi wrote about this: “In most Sichuan people, eight out of ten people died of thieves, two out of ten people died of starvation, and the only ones who survived died of tiger’s mouth.”
The so-called troubled times come out of evildoers, Zhao Biaozhao, a man from the Kangxi period, pointed out in his book "Talking about the Tiger": During the Shunzhi period (1643-1661), "the tigers were infested in Sichuan, a group of hundreds, or supporting the rafters in the middle of the night," All the young and old in the room."
At that time, Sichuan was experiencing long and large-scale wars, plagues, and sparsely populated areas after the disaster. Huang Mengbu, the magistrate of Nanchong, Sichuan, reported to his superiors that he had recruited 506 residents in Nanchong, but he did not expect this group of people. 228 people were eaten by tigers, 55 people died of illness, "223 people now"; Huang Mengbu did not give up and recruited 74 people to settle in Nanchong. Unexpectedly, 42 of these 74 people were eaten by tigers. .
In the twenty-first year of Kangxi (1682), the newly appointed prefectural county of Rongchang, Sichuan, Zhang Maochang and his 7 entourage arrived in Rongchang County to take office. Unexpectedly, when they entered the county seat, they found that the whole city was dead and empty, "wormwood was everywhere." Just as everyone was wondering, a group of tigers suddenly jumped out. Zhang Mao hurriedly fled for their lives in terror, but they were ferocious. In a blink of an eye, five of Zhang Mao’s seven followers were killed. under.
In this regard, Liu Shixi, who had experienced this period of crazy tiger infestation in Sichuan during the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, made a rough estimate of the population of Sichuan who died of tiger infestations in the early Qing Dynasty in "Shu Guijian": "The five years since Chongzhen ( 1632) was the beginning of the Shu Rebellion, and it was decided after the Kangxi three years (1664). In more than 30 years, southern Sichuan "died from the plague tiger twelve and three", northern Sichuan "died from the plague tiger on the eleventh", and eastern Sichuan "die "The Twelve-Three" of the Plague Tigers", and the "Eleventh-two of the Plague Tigers" in Western Sichuan.
Even in the period of the Republic of China, in 1930, in Jintang Street, the main city of Chongqing, Sichuan warlord Tang Shizun, who was the commander of the 32nd Division of the Sichuan Army at the time, had a feast of guests in the mansion one night, when suddenly a tiger broke into the hall of the Tang mansion. Everyone was shocked and panicked. Tang Shizun's guard hurriedly shot the tiger to death. The next day, Tang Shizun invited guests to come to eat tiger meat in order to comfort the guests, and called it "Tiger Banquet." To
In fact, in the Qing Dynasty and even the Republic of China, and even in the early 1950s of New China, there have been endless records of tigers breaking into cities.
On the third day of December in the third year of Yongzheng (1725), a big tiger broke into the city of Beijing and wandered around. This tiger first appeared in Beijing’s Dongbianmen area, then rushed to the front gate of the capital, and turned into the original Chuanshan in Xijiang Mi Alley. In the governor Nian Gengyao's mansion, the tiger was shot and bombarded by the Beijing garrison troops, and then stabbed to death with a long spear until the day after entering Beijing.
Regarding this anecdote of the tiger entering the capital, Emperor Yongzheng was on the memorial to the governor of Zhili, Cai Ting, when Zhu wrote the tiger's entry event and said: "There is such a strange event (the tiger enters the city)... Old and rare things too."
In fact, until 1957, there were records of tigers near the Miyun Tombs in Beijing.
According to studies by zoologists, tigers originated in China about 2 million years ago, but gradually spread to other regions of Asia and gradually evolved into 9 subspecies. These 9 subspecies are the South China tiger and the Siberian tiger (Siberian tiger). , Bengal tiger, Indochinese tiger (Southeast Asian tiger), Malay tiger, Sumatran tiger, Caspian tiger (Xinjiang tiger), Java tiger and Bari tiger.
根据动物学家的研究，老虎起源于大约200万年前的中国，但逐渐传播到亚洲其他地区，并逐渐演变成9个亚种。这9个亚种是华南虎和西伯利亚虎（Siberian Tiger）。 ，孟加拉虎，印度支那虎（东南亚虎），马来虎，苏门答腊虎，里海虎（新疆虎），爪哇虎和巴里虎。
It is estimated that at the end of the 19th century, there were about 100,000 wild tigers in the world. However, with the continuous advancement of human development, by the 20th century, there were three tigers: Caspian tiger (Xinjiang tiger), Java tiger and Bari tiger. These species have been extinct one after another, but during this period, the South China tiger and the Siberian tiger were still raging everywhere in China.
As early as the Eastern Han Dynasty, Wang Chong mentioned in "Lunheng·Being the Tiger" that at that time tigers often broke into the cities of the Eastern Han Empire, "the tiger entered the town and walked among the people." In the Tang Dynasty, it became an empire. Around the capital city of Chang'an, there are still tigers infestation. In this regard, the Tang Dynasty poet Zhang Ji (approximately 766—approximately 830) mentioned the surrounding area of Chang'an in his book "The Tiger's Walk": Walk around the forest in the daytime."
During the Jin Xuanzong period (1163-1224), which was the same period as the Southern Song Dynasty, there were still records of tiger cannibalism in Kaifeng Prefecture, which was once the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty. Those who are worth twenty taels of silver, and the wounded are given medicine from the inner government."
From the 1st century to the 13th century, even in the vicinity of the capital, the Chinese empire was full of tigers, and this situation will intensify with the explosion of the Chinese population.
In the third year of Emperor Huan’s eternal life in the Eastern Han Dynasty (157 years), the Chinese population was 56.48 million at that time. In the first year of Yongle, the first year of the Ming Dynasty (1403), the Chinese population was 66.59 million. However, in the eighteenth year of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1753), China The population exceeded 100 million for the first time. In the 13th year of Daoguang of the Qing Dynasty (1833), the Chinese population exploded to 398 million.
The population explosion means that human beings continue to develop the forest wasteland, and the tiger’s habitat is constantly being oppressed. Under this scenario, after entering the Ming and Qing Dynasties, as the original sparsely populated land continues to develop, humans and tigers The conflicts began to intensify and were widely recorded in various historical materials such as local chronicles and literati diaries.
After experiencing long-term wars and tigers in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, the Qing government began to call on the people to go to Sichuan for farming in the early years of the Qing dynasty. The rapidly shrinking population began to resume growth. It was during the development of Xixiang County in southern Shaanxi. During the Kangxi period, the tiger infestation in Xixiang County made people tremble. At that time, Xixiang County "not special tiger tracks crossed the suburbs, and Entering the city at midnight hurts the people and the livestock".
For this reason, Wang Mu, the magistrate of Xixiang County in southern Shaanxi, specially recruited dozens of warriors to kill tigers. "The capturer Guisi (1713) to Yiwei (1715) shot tigers out of sixty out of four." From 1713 to 1715, short In just two years, only the official tiger fighting team organized by Xixiang County shot and killed six to ten tigers. The tiger infestation in Shaanxi was also evident at that time. To
Tiger infestations were rampant during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. In addition to population growth and the destruction of a large number of tiger habitats, the climatic factors during the Ming and Qing Dynasties were also one of the reasons for the serious tiger infestations during this period.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the climate in China was very cold at that time, known as the "Ming and Qing Little Ice Age". During this period, even in the Jiangxi region south of the Yangtze River, there were often abnormal cold such as "big cold" and "heavy snow for several days" Weather, according to Xu Huailin's "Interaction and Changes of Economic Development and Ecological Environment in Jiangxi History", there were 64 droughts in Jiangxi during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, 3.2 times the number of floods during the Song and Yuan Dynasties, and 151 floods.
Due to the frequent occurrence of floods and droughts during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the rivers dried up, the grass withered, and a large number of herbivores died, which affected the tiger’s living environment. In addition, the habitat was increasingly being eroded and destroyed by humans. Suffering gradually entered the highest period in history. Take the 20th year of Kangxi (1681) as an example. In that year, the Yugan County of Jiangxi "drought severely in autumn, and tigers wounded people, and continued year after year." In the sixth year of Xianfeng (1856), Jiangxi Germany Huaxian County "has a severe drought. It has not rained for more than two hundred days from summer to winter. Pengze has a long life. In July, the tigers in Tanjiaban, Dongxiang, Dehua, can eat people during the day and the tigers cross the village at night."
Under the influence of human erosion and invasion and natural disasters, from the end of the Ming Dynasty to the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, records of tigers in groups and rampant haunts began to appear in local chronicles all over China.
Take Shanghai as an example. According to local chronicles, there are 25 tiger infestations in Shanghai (1 in the Yuan Dynasty, 14 in the Ming Dynasty, and 10 in the Qing Dynasty). Among them, in the second year of the Ming Dynasty (1437), the area near Wusong, Baoshan, Shanghai Tigers appeared in groups, biting and biting as many as 65 people. "Sometimes there was a roar and roar, and the autumn wind was violent for ten miles." As a result, "the residents were innocent and the cries were in the sky at midnight."
In the fifteenth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty (1658), at Weixi Pass, Jinshan near the county seat of Shanghai, a tiger rushed directly into the city. After a round in the city, it "roared and left without knowing what to do". At that time, four soldiers tried to capture the tiger, but all four were killed by it.
Although there are endless records of tiger infestations in the south, from the Ming and Qing dynasties, the tigers in the north have gradually decreased and even disappeared.
Take Liaocheng, Shandong, where Jingyanggang where Wusong fights tigers was recorded in the novel "Water Margin" in the novel "Water Margin" in the late Yuan and early Ming dynasties as an example. After the "Yanzhou Fuzhi" in the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty (1573-1619) listed as orthodox historical data, There is no record of "there is a tiger". And another famous tiger-infested place in the "Water Margin", Li Kui angrily killed a nest of four tigers in Yizhou (now Linyi, Shandong), to the Qing Dynasty Kangxi thirteenth year (1674) after the "Yizhou Zhi", The record of tigers also disappeared.
After the Manchu Dynasty entered the Pass, the Qing imperial family first banned the Northeast as the "Longxing Land", which allowed the Siberian tigers to proliferate. During this period, the Qing imperial family often went to the Northeast to hunt tigers, only in the 21st year of Kangxi (1682). Emperor Kangxi visited Shengjing (now Shenyang) to the east, "at such a distance of more than nine hundred miles, he hunted continuously throughout the day," and "there were more than sixty tigers that stopped."
At that time, the royal hunting team of the Qing Dynasty often besieged tigers in groups, and then waited for the emperor to hunt them down personally. "The emperor shot them, or the prince shot them. The princes and ministers did not dare to make a shot in the encirclement. In the hunting and killing of "Sit and Reap", in the fifty-eighth year of Kangxi (1719), Emperor Kangxi recalled that he "since his childhood, wherever he used shotguns and bows to obtain 135 tigers."
Kangxi can also be called the first emperor to kill the tiger in ancient and modern times.
In the late Qing Dynasty, the Qing government began to open the Northeast. Taking Fengtian (Liaoning) as an example, its population soared from 2.58 million in the first year of Xianfeng (1851) to 11 million in 1908. As the population continues to multiply and expand, Liaoning’s records of the Siberian tiger are also disappearing. "Old records about the Hulan Duo Tiger... Since its release, the population has become denser, the leaves and mosses are interconnected, and the villages are facing each other. In Lanzhou".
The "Shengjing Tongzhi" written in the early years of Qianlong records that tigers "are found in all mountains" in the Northeast, while in the Northeast local chronicles during the Republic of China, it is mostly "there were in the past, but not seen today." Even so, in the period of the Republic of China, Northeast King Zhang Zuolin was still very interested in eating tiger meat. At that time, tigers in Liaoning had almost disappeared. For this reason, every winter season, Zhang Zuolin ordered tigers from Heilongjiang, Jilin and other places to send some tiger meat to the mansion. At that time, the famous chef Zhao Lianbi cooked tiger delicacies such as "Tiger Meat Roasted Fresh Bamboo Shoots", "Tiger Meat Meatballs Roasted Snow Lily", "Ginger Silk Tiger Meat Stir-Fried Fresh Bamboo Shoots", "Tiger Meat Stewed Carrots", etc., are Zhang Zuolin's best. Love. To
At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, just as the Siberian tiger was retreating, in Xinjiang, the Xinjiang tiger (Caspian tiger) gradually came to the edge of extinction.
In 1876, Russian Przewalski came to Lop Nur at the end of the Tarim River in Xinjiang for an expedition. On the first night of camping in Lop Nur, Przewalski and his party were all awakened by the sound of a long tiger roar. The horse neighed in horror, and Przewalski later recalled that there were still "as many tigers as the (Russian) Volga wolf" in Xinjiang during this period.
1876年，俄国人普热瓦尔斯基来到新疆塔里木河尽头的罗布泊（Lop Nur）进行探险。在罗布泊（Lop Nur）露营的第一天晚上，普雷萨瓦尔斯基（Przewalski）和他的同伴都被老虎的长吼声惊醒。这匹马惊恐地叫了起来，随后普热瓦尔斯基回忆说，在此期间，新疆仍然有“和（俄国）伏尔加河狼一样多的老虎”。
In 1899, the Swedish explorer Sven Heding also arrived in Lop Nur. During this period, Lop Nur had become a desert that was difficult for humans to survive due to the depletion of water sources. However, on the first night Sven Heding came, he was still frightened by the tiger. In Sven Heding’s investigation report, he left a sketch of a tiger falling in a trap: A tiger trapped in a Robe’s In the trap, the front left paw was clamped by a circular clip, and the tiger squatted up and howled, seeming to want to jump out of the trap.
1899年，瑞典探险家Sven Heding也到达了罗布泊。在此期间，罗布泊（Lop Nur）已成为沙漠，由于水源枯竭，人类难以生存。然而，在斯文·海丁（Sven Heding）来到的第一个晚上，他仍然被老虎吓坏了。在Sven Heding的调查报告中，他留下了一只老虎掉入陷阱的草图：一只老虎被困在长袍的陷阱中。在陷阱中，左前爪被圆形夹子夹住，老虎蹲下并qua叫，似乎想要跳出陷阱。
But Xinjiang tigers were gradually on the verge of extinction. By the end of 1927, German explorer Emil Trinkler reported that the Robb told him that he hadn't seen tigers in nearly two to thirty years. A hunter in Bachu, Xinjiang, told him that the last tiger on the banks of the Yeerqiang River died in 1916.
In 1934, Sven Heding came to Tarim again. An old Robb told him that more than ten years ago, an old tiger slowly walked up the Tarim River along the woodland along the river bank. Sven Heding first made the judgment that Xinjiang tigers have disappeared.
1934年，斯文·海丁（Sven Heding）再次来到塔里木。一只老罗布告诉他，十多年前，一只老老虎沿着河岸的林地缓缓地走上塔里木河。斯文·海丁（Sven Heding）首先做出了新疆老虎不见了的判断。
According to the Records of Xinjiang’s Bayinguo Leng Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, some people in the prefecture once shot a tiger with a gun from 1961 to 1962. Professor Gu Jinghe, a zoologist at the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said: The extinction of Xinjiang tigers was around the 1960s. The last time I saw a tiger was in Huocheng (Ili area of Xinjiang). The tiger hunted was made into specimens."
With the large-scale retreat of the Siberian tiger and the extinction of the Xinjiang tiger, the South China tiger has also reached the end of the road and has begun to send its final roar to mankind.
In Xuwen, Guangdong, there were still more than 1,000 square kilometers of tropical rainforest in the county before 1949. The great scholar Qu Dajun of the Qing Dynasty recorded in "Guangdong Xinyu": Guangdong "Gao (zhou), Lei (zhou) ), Lian (Jiang) three counties and more tigers."
However, with the continuous disappearance of the tropical rain forests in Xuwen County, tigers' contact with humans has become increasingly dense. According to the statistics of the Xuwen Chamber of Commerce in Guangdong, from 1916 to 1933, at that time, more than 300 people died from tigers in Xuwen County every year. Not only that, at that time the tiger in Xuwen of Guangdong even broke into the county town for harm. In the 1930s, when Chen Tong, the county magistrate of Xuwen, Guangdong, returned from work in the evening, there was a tiger lying at the door of Xuwen County Government. Thinking it was a cow, Chen Tong was frightened and hurriedly escaped from the county government's door and escaped into the hospital after he approached and found it was a tiger.
In the midst of this kind of crazy tiger infestation, in the 1930s, in Suhu Village, Xuwen, Guangdong, several villagers mistakenly took a tiger cub as a wild cat cub and brought it back to feed. This caused a large group of tigers to besiege the village. The villagers recalled that at that time, the village was full of tigers roaring one after another, and the number of villagers did not dare to go out to count. Later, the villagers released the tiger cubs and the tigers gradually left. As a result of this encounter, Xuwen Suhu Village in Guangdong has also become a well-known place.
The experience of Suhu Village in Xuwen, Guangdong in the 1930s was a precursor to Baihuwei Village in Hunan Passage in 1957.
At the time when Gaoping Village in Tongdao County, Hunan Province encountered the Baihuwei Village Incident in 1957, from 1952 to 1962, more than 2,000 people were killed in Hunan Province.
In fact, the tiger infestation in Hunan is also closely related to the population explosion in Hunan. In the early Qing Dynasty, after a long period of war, the population of Hunan fell to only 910,000. However, in the 22nd year of Daoguang (1842), the population of Hunan had exceeded 20 million. Large-scale population expansion and forest land reclamation Against this background, Hunan's records of "tigers walking and cannibalism" began to appear in an endless stream.
In the 1950s at the beginning of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, in view of the rampant tiger infestation in Hunan, officials began to organize a tiger team to fight the tiger.
At that time, the tiger infestation in Leiyang, Hunan was the most serious. In 1952, more than 120 people were killed by tigers in the entire Leiyang County. The highest peak occurred in one day and 32 people were killed by tigers. Horror record of what tigers eat.
At this time, in November 1952, Yang Zezhi, the county magistrate of Leiyang, Hunan, began to organize tiger teams everywhere in Leiyang to eliminate harm to the people. After that, from 1952 to 1959, Leiyang fought a total of 168 Tigers. Among them, the Tigers team led by "Tiger King" Chen Qifang beat 138 Tigers.
Previously, in 1952, when the tiger was most affected in Leiyang, Hunan, Chen Qifang’s 14-year-old grandson Chen Qingnai was bitten and killed by a tiger and ate only one human leg. Since then, Chen Qifang has been avenging his life. He took his two sons, father and son, to avenge tigers everywhere. During the peak period, Chen Qifang and his son took tiger fighters and hunted more than 40 tigers in one year.
By the end of 1957, Chen Qifang was specially invited to Beijing due to the astonishing number of fighting tigers. He was personally received by Premier Zhou and became the well-deserved "tiger king" in Hunan and even China.
Due to the raging tigers, in February 1959, the Ministry of Forestry issued an order to classify South China tigers as harmful animals in the same category as bears, leopards, and wolves, calling on hunters to "go all out to kill them." After nearly 20 years of a large-scale "killing beast movement", from 1949 to 1964, in the fifteen years from 1949 to 1964, the number of tigers that were publicly counted in Hunan alone reached 647. By 1964 , As there are no more tigers to fight, the last tiger team in Hunan Province has been disbanded.
Xu Wen, Guangdong, who was once a tiger infestation, has never seen a tiger haunt since the last tiger was killed in 1960.
According to statistics by Xu Zhiqing, a zoologist from the Chongqing Museum of Natural History, in the early 1950s of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, there were about 4,000 South China tigers in the country. According to public statistics, from 1950 to 1960, at least 3,000 South China tigers were hunted and killed throughout the country. Tigers, most of them are South China tigers.
In November 1986, a South China tiger cub was captured by a clip and died of injuries. This was the last time the State Forestry Administration received a report of a wild South China tiger. Since then, it has never been reported in China. See the official record of the wild South China tiger.
So far, the tigers, which have been galloping on the land of China since human records, have gradually entered the path of extinction with the extinction of Xinjiang tigers, the decline of Siberian tigers, and the disappearance of wild South China tigers.
And the incident in Baihuwei Village in Hunan Province in 1957, only more than 60 years have passed, all this sounds like a dream yesterday.
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